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Each exercise of SICP makes me think more about recursion. The following exercise made me think more about how to model recursion and what the returns are to be when recursing multiple layers inside a tree.
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Exercise 2.32 could have been written better if currying was available. I am not sure whether scheme supports currying functions, and hence the regular lambda expression.
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I used reverse
followed by the sameparityiter
because I did not want to use the inefficient
append
function.
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The sections also introduces us to the map
higher order function.
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But why map? Quoting SICP
The different between the two definitions is not that the computer is performing a different process (it isn’t) but that we think about the process differently. In effect, `map` helps establish an abstraction barrier that isolates the implementation of procedures that transforms lists from the details of how the elements of the list are extracted and combined.
This is the most succint way to put across the need for abstractions. Abstractions are invented to help us think differently and care about different things.
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Interchanging the arguments of cons does not work as it will generate a list of lists instead of generating a single list.
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I have a pull request for the restructured plotting module at here. There has been lots of discussions on how the new plot API should look like in the pull request. The API as of now has 5 functions:
plot_line
which plots 2D line plots, which I think I will change to plot
.plot_parametric
which plots 2D parametric plots.plot3D
which plots 3D plots.plot3D_parametric
which plots 3D parametric line plots. I think I will have to
change it into plot_parametric3D
.plot3D_surface
which plots 3D parametric surfaces.The names are slightly confusing, but the alternative to these names are big. If you have any good names for 3D plots, please leave it in the comments.
I will have another post describing the things I learnt over this GSoC period.
]]>One of the major things decided in the previous week was to restructure the plot
function. Presently plot
is a single function, which depending on its input, renders
an 2d or an 3d plot. Though it plots the right kind of plot, the plot
function is
quite complex and it was decided to split the plot function into smaller functions
that plots a particular type of plot. I tried an approach where all 2D plots are plotted
by a plot2d
function, the 3D plots by plot3D
and the existing plot_implicit
plots to plot regions and implicit equations. Aaron mentioned that the API is still very
complex as I was using tuples and lists to differentiate between a parametric plot
and a 2d line plot and he was right. It is a bit complex and it was decided to have
a functions for each kind of plot.
I think i can have the new plot functions as an PR by next week and I would like to try getting a Mayavi backend ready by the end of my GSoC period.
I forgot to mention why I deviated from my what I said I would do in my GSoC application. I tried getting a svgfig backend ready for almost one and a half week, and it was quite difficult. svgfig is not being updated and I had a hard time getting the axis ticks labelling to work most of the time. I wrote to the project maintainer many times and he helped me with a lot of things, but the library was not polished enough to use it with Sympy Live. So plotting for SymPy Live should be attempted with a javascript plotting library rather than a python backend. If we get matplotlib support on GAE, then it would be awesome.
]]>I think I am a little behind my gsoc schedule, and I should speed up things a little in the next few weeks.
So these are the things that I have to address
I don’t think I will be able to do all of these by the end of gsoc period. But my priority will be getting the implicit plotting and svgfig backend working and getting my pull requests merged.
]]>And
and Or
statements. Now you can do
1


and get a plot as below. So now you can combine any number of equations / inequalities and plot it. I think its possible to do a lot of cool stuff combining equations / inequalities.
Plotting through interval math is awesome but is also very limited. You cannot add support to re()
, to functions that you cannot characterize as monotonic in certain regions. But we always encounter such functions. So there should be some fall back algorithm to plot such plots. I implemented the fall back algorithm last week. The idea is borrowed from sage implicit plots. We convert an equation / inequality into a function which returns 1 if it satisfies and 1 if it doesn’t satisfy. So if you are plotting an equality then you plot using the contour
command of matplotlib, and instruct it to plot only the zero contour. If its an inequality then plotting the region with two colors gives the plot required.
These are examples from the fallback algorithm.
Plot of $y^{2}=x^{3}x$
The plot with interval arithmetic is more precise.
I haven’t finished with the tests. Once I finish the tests I can send a pull request. The pull request will be pretty big, but most of the things have been reviewed in my previous pull request. This is just an extension of the previous pull request.
There are certain problems with the module though. The line width problem which I mentioned in my previous blog post, cannot be fixed. So you will have to change to the fall back method if the line width becomes large. Also the fall back algorithm cannot plot boolean combinations of equations / inequalities. So the two methods complement each other largely. So the next question would be whether we can choose one of the two intelligently. I guess the answer is No. That decision must be taken by the user. But most of the times the interval math approach works very nicely.
]]>Description:
The implicit plotting algorithm I implemented works something like below:
1) Get x and y interval. If it satisfies the expression throughout the interval, then plot it.
2) If it does not satisfy, throw away the intervals.
3) If it partially satisfies, then recursively subdivide into four intervals, and try again.
For cases of equality, the first point never holds true due to floating point errors. So we go on eliminating regions, and after a certain depth, plot the remaining region. These are the regions where there is at least one solution. This is the reason why the plots are rasterized. But there is an inherent bigger problem here. In the cases of expressions like $x^{3}$ even if the x interval is small, the resulting interval after computation will be large. Sometimes, due to these large intervals, there might be lots of y and x intervals which satisfy because of these errors. Even if we make x interval really small, the corresponding y interval will be large, ie the line widths become large. The explanation is more of a guess rather than the right explanation.
Examples:
Plot of $x^{y}=y^{x}$ Even if I increase my depth of recursion to higher values, the thickness becomes less, but doesn’t vanish. The plot actually should have been two separate curves.
The Mac OSX’s Grapher uses a similar algorithm(A guess because they have similar rasterization) but takes care of the line widths.
If you feel you know where the problem is, please comment or email me. :)
]]>ipython c qtconsole
. So it has been mostly hanging in the ipython irc, asking them lots of questions on how ipython works. I am really thankful to minrk who patiently taught me how to do most of the stuff. There are a few problems that I am facing, but I think I will have the qtconsole ready in a day.
I also submitted a pull request #1370 for my initial work on implicit plotting. Except for the bug of changing line thickness, it works pretty nicely. Please feel free to play with it and comment on the pull request if you encounter any bugs.
]]>The above image illustrates a plot which does domain tracking and continuity tracking. It is not possible for interval arithmetic without tracking, to decide whether to draw the plots near zero. But with continuity tracking we get an accurate plot.
The above plot is that of $y = \frac{1}{\tan{\left (x \right )}}$ . It is possible to see the small discontinuity near multiples of $\pi / 2$ as $\pi / 2$ is not there in the domain of the expression.
The above plot illustrates how sqrt does not plot anything outside its domain. Even though it appears not that significant, it becomes significant when the huge expression is provided as the argument to the function.
Illustrations of more plots
Plot of $y^{2}=x^{3}x$
The above plot took 19.26 seconds to render.
The problem with plots using interval arithmetic is that the errors increases with the length of the expression as the it takes the lowest and the uppermost bounds. It is possible to see the effect of errors in the following plot. It is possible to see the line thickens when the expression reaches a maximum or an minimum. This is due to the error creeping in. The interval becomes wide even at the smallest of the x interval.
It is better illustrated in the plot below. It is possible to see the width of the line increasing and then decreasing.
Then next problem is that of rasterization. In order to avoid rasterization I tried using the Matplotlib’s contourf
function which implements the marching squares algorithm. Though it smoothens the curves, still there is fair bit of rasterization. The plot below is a zoomed version of $y=sin(x)$
Presently the plotting function supports plotting of expressions containing cos
, sin
, tan
, exp
, log
, sqrt
, atan
. Implementing more functions is fairly easy. I should be able to finish most of the expressions that can be implemented in the next week. I will look into implementing plotting implicit equations for expressions which cannot be implemented using interval arithmetic.
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The major problem with the above approach is the way that the rightmost point / segment is handled. The rightmost segment does not have another right segment to decide whether it forms a 180 degree angle or not. Hence it is assumed straight if the previous segment and the present segment forms a straight line. Most of the time this fails to sample further for the end segment thought it should have sampled. The problem can be seen in an plot of $y = sin(x^{2})$
The last method used is symmetric and gives better results, but it is quite ugly. The branch is here.(EDIT: changed the link). It uses some amount of random sampling to avoid aliased results. The plot of $y = sin(x^{2})$ renders very accurately. Feel free to experiment with it and if there is a better method, you can comment below :).
I think I will get an non  ugly code ready by the tomorrow and wait for Stefan’s branch to get merged before submitting this method as pull request. This week has been lots of experimentation. I think I will spend the next week getting a basic version of Interval Arithmetic ready using numpy.
]]>It took 1.57 seconds to render this image which is decently fast. I observed that if the independent regions are less and large, then the time take for the plot to be rendered is high. I tried $cos(y) > sin(x)$ which took about 5.3 seconds to render.
I wanted to try what the maximum time it takes to render something. So I tried plotting $sin^{2}x+cos^{2}x$ less than 1. As the arithmetic is done on intervals, it is not possible for the algorithm to decide that the expression is not true throughout the interval. So it goes on subdividing more and more, until it reaches a dimension of 1 pixel. For a resolution of 512X512, it took 120 seconds to render. If there are a lot of evaluations in the expression, then it might increase, but we should be expecting times around 120 seconds.
Another problem that I have to address is rasterization. I am really not getting any ideas on how to avoid rasterization. One way is to handle the zoom event in matplotlib and change the data to match the zoom. But for complicated graphs, revaluating might take a lot of time, which is bad.
We can see that if there is a way of interpolating over the rectangular edges, then we will have a plot without rasterization. I haven’t got any foolproof idea to implement this interpolation as there will be many independent regions. So if you have any idea, then please comment or mail me :). The code for plotting can be found here.
]]>There are a lot of posts on how contributing to a open source software is the best way to sharpen your programming skills. But lot of people are too afraid to approach an organization and start contributing. There is an impending fear that people working on these projects are very stud(intelligent) people and they might get annoyed at your ignorance. Well, let me tell you this, people in an open source project are really nice. They don’t get annoyed very easily and they are ready to help you with everything. They correct all your mistakes with lots of patience and help you with improving your code. I think getting your code reviewed is the best way to improve your programming skills after you have reached a certain stage.
I was pretty much amazed with SymPy’s code base. Its so neat and clean that any newcomer can just look at the docstrings and can deduce the functionality of every function. Though my experience is limited, I haven’t seen a better codebase than SymPy’s. I am still looking at their codebase and the amount of modularity continues to amaze me. So if anybody is interested in contributing to a python open source project, then consider contributing to SymPy, for you will learn a lot on how a python project has to be structured.
I will be using this blog to update about my GSoC project and hopefully I will learn a lot during this period.
]]>Its been a long time procrastinating to write a blog. Having read this post, I realized that I really need to think about the progress I am doing each day. I will be creating a new post every two days, in the worst case, with something that I have learnt or something that I know. Writing about something you know, really questions your assumptions, and you realize that you really didn’t know something that well. Its also been a long time that I wrote essays, and I am feeling rusty. It is reflected in the way that I am writing this post. It is high time that I improve my writing skills also. Hopefully I will imprve over time
I put a lot of effort to get this blog running. I feel really powerful as I can configure this blog as I want it to be and more than anything, it has MathJax support. I think this will help me to express my views better.
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